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《最高人民法院關于加強區塊鏈司法應用的意見》全文(中英文版)
  • 來源:最高人民法院
  • 發布時間:2022-05-25 14:14:39

  法發〔2022〕16號

  最高人民法院

  關于加強區塊鏈司法應用的意見

  為深入貫徹落實習近平法治思想和習近平總書記關于積極推動區塊鏈技術為人民群眾提供更加智能、更加便捷、更加優質公共服務的重要指示精神,貫徹落實《中華人民共和國國民經濟和社會發展第十四個五年規劃和2035年遠景目標綱要》和《“十四五”國家信息化規劃》,充分發揮區塊鏈在促進司法公信、服務社會治理、防范化解風險、推動高質量發展等方面的作用,全面深化智慧法院建設,推進審判體系和審判能力現代化,結合人民法院工作實際,制定本意見。

  一、 總體要求

 ?。ㄒ唬?指導思想。以習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想為指導,深入貫徹習近平法治思想和習近平總書記關于網絡強國的重要思想,緊緊圍繞“努力讓人民群眾在每一個司法案件中感受到公平正義”的目標,堅持服務大局、司法為民、公正司法,大力推動區塊鏈技術與多元解紛、訴訟服務、審判執行和司法管理工作深度融合,積極應用區塊鏈平臺服務社會治理、優化營商環境、加強誠信體系建設、防范化解重大風險、支持構建新發展格局,努力創造更高水平的數字正義。

 ?。ǘ?總體目標。到2025年,建成人民法院與社會各行各業互通共享的區塊鏈聯盟,形成較為完備的區塊鏈司法領域應用標準體系,數據核驗、可信操作、智能合約、跨鏈協同等基礎支持能力大幅提升;區塊鏈在多元解紛、訴訟服務、審判執行和司法管理工作中得到全面應用,有效促進司法公信,提升司法效率,強化廉潔司法;司法區塊鏈跨鏈聯盟融入經濟社會運行體系,實現與政法、工商、金融、環保、征信等多個領域跨鏈信息共享和協同,主動服務營商環境優化、經濟社會治理、風險防范化解和產業創新發展,助力平安中國、法治中國、數字中國和誠信中國建設,形成中國特色、世界領先的區塊鏈司法領域應用模式,為新時代我國經濟社會數字化轉型和高質量發展提供堅強有力的司法服務和保障。

 ?。ㄈ?基本原則

  堅持依法統籌、注重協同聯動。依法依規加強區塊鏈基礎設施統籌規劃,面向經濟社會發展和審判執行工作需要,開展區塊鏈司法領域應用頂層設計,加強與各行各業跨鏈協同應用模式研究,促進多方數據共享和協同應用。

  堅持開放共享、注重標準先行。建設與社會各行各業互通共享的區塊鏈聯盟,形成共性基礎技術支持能力,建立統一、開放的區塊鏈司法領域應用技術標準體系,為跨部門節點接入、跨行業數據共同維護和利用提供規范化服務。

  堅持應用牽引、注重創新發展。以司法為民、公正司法和服務社會治理為牽引,充分發揮區塊鏈在優化業務流程、提升協同效率、建設可信體系等方面的作用,持續推進區塊鏈在司法領域深度應用,不斷提高跨領域自動執行能力。

  堅持安全可靠、注重有序推進。以安全可信為前提,著力提升上鏈數據和智能合約的準確可控水平,確保數據安全,保護個人信息,推動形成區塊鏈在司法領域穩中求進、有序發展、安全可靠的應用生態。

  二、 人民法院區塊鏈平臺建設要求

 ?。ㄋ模?加強區塊鏈應用頂層設計。遵照法律規范要求,按照內外部高效協同的總體思想,針對法院業務應用和服務社會治理協同應用需求,系統開展區塊鏈在司法領域應用的場景設計。針對內、外網協同應用需求,形成全國統一、支持跨網系、跨鏈協同司法應用的區塊鏈總體建設方案。

 ?。ㄎ澹?持續推進跨鏈協同應用能力建設。針對主動服務經濟社會治理和司法業務應用場景,構建基于分布式標識、互聯互通、跨鏈互信的區塊鏈聯盟基礎設施,有效整合執行區塊鏈已有建設成果,充分發揮聯盟鏈技術特點,加強司法區塊鏈平臺與各行業區塊鏈平臺跨鏈聯盟建設,持續提升協同能力。

 ?。?提升司法區塊鏈技術能力。聯合優勢力量,開展關鍵技術攻關,打造開放共享的全國法院司法區塊鏈平臺,提高數據核驗、可信操作、智能合約、跨鏈協同等基礎技術能力,支持各級人民法院基于司法鏈平臺開展業務創新應用。

 ?。ㄆ撸?建設互聯網司法區塊鏈驗證平臺?;谌珖痉▍^塊鏈平臺數據,在互聯網端建設司法區塊鏈驗證平臺,支持當事人等相關主體對調解數據、電子證據、訴訟文書等司法數據進行真偽核驗。

 ?。ò耍?建立健全標準規范體系。建立健全區塊鏈在司法領域應用的技術標準和管理規范,為與相關領域區塊鏈平臺和節點接入互通、共享協同提供技術指引和標準接口支持。

  三、 充分運用區塊鏈數據防篡改技術,進一步提升司法公信力

 ?。ň牛?保障司法數據安全。推進人民法院電子卷宗、電子檔案、司法統計報表、案件結案狀態等司法數據上鏈存儲,確保司法數據防篡改,提升數據安全水平。

 ?。ㄊ?保障電子證據可信。健全完善區塊鏈平臺證據核驗功能,支持當事人和法官在線核驗通過區塊鏈存儲的電子證據,推動完善區塊鏈存證的標準和規則,提升電子證據認定的效率和質量。

 ?。ㄊ唬?保障執行操作合規。推動執行案件信息、當事人信息、組織機構信息、執行通知、財產查控、財產處置、案款收發、信用懲戒、執法取證、執行互動、案件報結、卷宗歸檔等數據和操作上鏈存證,常態化開展執行全業務流程操作安全審計,進一步規范執行操作行為,探索開展執行查控等敏感操作在線閉環驗證,確??煽繜o誤。

 ?。ㄊ?保障司法文書權威。推動人民法院送達的訴訟文書和送達回執在司法區塊鏈平臺統一存儲,支持在互聯網端查驗送達文書,保證送達全流程安全可靠,維護司法權威。

  四、 充分發揮區塊鏈優化業務流程的重要作用,不斷提高司法效率

 ?。ㄊ?支持立案信息流轉應用。建立立案登記材料分級分類自動流轉業務規則,支持在材料提交限定期滿后案件實現分級分類自動立案,鞏固立案登記制改革成果,提高立案效率。

 ?。ㄊ模?支持調解與審判流程銜接應用。建立調解協議不履行自動觸發審判立案、執行立案等業務規則和智能合約程序,增強調解程序司法權威,支持多元糾紛化解。

 ?。ㄊ澹?支持審判與執行流程銜接聯動。全面推進審判與執行辦案系統信息互通和數據共享,探索建立裁判文書不履行自動觸發執行立案等業務規則和聯動機制,優化審執銜接,暢通信息流轉,減少重復工作,支持切實破解執行難。

 ?。ㄊ?支持提升執行效率。探索建立符合條件的執行案件自動發起查詢、凍結、扣劃以及執行案款自動發放智能合約機制,在確保程序合規的前提下簡化審批環節;建立對統查財產線索足額終本案件、對不履行義務的執行和解案件,無需單獨提起立案流程即可自動立案恢復執行的智能合約機制。

 ?。ㄊ撸?支持執行干警便捷辦案。運用區塊鏈技術推動網絡查控、評估拍賣、案款收發、失信限消、事項委托、電子卷宗隨案生成等向移動端延伸,形成去中心化、去網系化、去系統化的數據串聯,方便執行干警隨時隨地辦理執行事務。

  五、 充分挖掘區塊鏈互通聯動的巨大潛力,增強司法協同能力

 ?。ㄊ耍?提高律師資質驗證協同能力。針對律師資質驗證需求,構建人民法院與司法行政部門跨鏈協同應用,支持實現參與訴訟活動的律師資質、信用報告在線查詢及核驗,提高核驗實時性。

 ?。ㄊ牛?提高政法部門案件協同辦理能力。針對減刑假釋、刑事、民商事等案件跨部門協同辦理和公民身份認證等需求,構建人民法院與檢察、公安、司法行政等部門的跨鏈協同應用,提高案件在線流轉效率和數據互信水平。

 ?。ǘ?提高跨部門協同執行能力。針對被執行人財產查控、失信被執行人聯合懲戒等需求,構建人民法院與行政執法、不動產登記、金融證券保險機構、聯合信用懲戒等單位的跨鏈協同應用,建立自動化執行查控和信用懲戒模式,提高協同執行工作效率。

  六、 充分利用區塊鏈聯盟互認可信的價值屬性,服務經濟社會治理

 ?。ǘ唬?保護知識產權。構建與版權、商標、專利等知識產權區塊鏈平臺的跨鏈協同機制,支持對知識產權的權屬、登記、轉讓等信息的查詢核驗,為知識產權案件的證據認定等提供便利,更好地服務國家創新驅動戰略實施。

 ?。ǘ?支持營商環境優化。構建與市場監管、產權登記和交易平臺等區塊鏈平臺的跨鏈協同應用機制,支持對企業基本信息、企業股權變動、企業間關聯關系、不動產和動產權屬狀況、融資租賃、貴金屬交易等權屬登記和交易狀況信息的查詢核驗,為權屬認定和產權交易提供便利,促進基于數據與信用的分級分類監管體系建設,更好地服務國家營商環境建設。

 ?。ǘ?支持數據開發利用。構建與數據權屬、數據交易等區塊鏈平臺的跨鏈協同應用機制,支持對數據確權、數據交易等過程信息的查詢核驗和智能合約處置,助力數據要素市場構建和數據價值釋放,更好地服務國家大數據戰略實施。

 ?。ǘ模?支持金融信息流轉應用。構建與金融機構區塊鏈平臺的跨鏈協同應用機制,支持對金融貸款合同、信用卡等審批、履行、違約過程信息的查詢核驗和智能合約處置,更好地服務金融風險防范化解。

 ?。ǘ澹?支持企業破產重組。構建與相關政府部門區塊鏈平臺的跨鏈協同應用機制,支持對債務人企業的經營信息和涉訴涉執行信息互通共享,支持債權申報信息在線驗證質證,在保障全體債權人知情權和查閱權的同時,強化債權審核公開透明,并進一步確保網絡債權人會議的表決效力,更好地服務市場主體救治和退出。

 ?。ǘ?支持征信體系建設。構建與全國信用信息共享平臺、國家企業信用信息公示系統和失信懲戒部門的跨鏈協同應用機制,支持對失信被執行人、限制高消費信息的查詢核驗和智能合約處置,確保失信信息可信產生、安全傳播和合規使用,更好地發揮聯合失信懲戒作用,助力健全以信用為基礎的新型監管機制,服務社會信用體系建設。

  七、 保障措施

 ?。ǘ撸?加強組織領導。各級人民法院要高度重視區塊鏈在司法領域的建設和應用,加強統籌協調,明確任務牽頭部門負責區塊鏈應用整體推進和管理。

 ?。ǘ耍?建立協同機制。各級人民法院要統籌轄區區塊鏈應用重點,聯合其他政法單位、社會機構等力量強化協同工作機制,共同推進區塊鏈在司法領域的應用。

 ?。ǘ牛?加大支持力度。各級人民法院要將區塊鏈應用工作納入智慧法院建設規劃統籌組織實施,并與地方政府社會治理創新相結合,爭取經費支持,加大推進力度。

 ?。ㄈ?注重應用示范。各級人民法院要面向服務經濟社會發展和人民法院業務需求,選擇較為成熟的應用場景開展典型應用示范,形成可復制、可推廣的創新模式。

 ?。ㄈ唬?確保安全可靠。各級人民法院要健全事前審核和測試評估機制,確保上鏈數據真實性、準確性、合規性以及鏈上鏈下數據一致性,確保智能合約的合法性、有效性、安全性和可靠性。

 ?。ㄈ?積極宣傳引導。各級人民法院要加強成功案例宣傳推介,面向法院干警開展區塊鏈技術應用培訓,全面提升區塊鏈在司法領域的應用成效。

  最高人民法院

  2022年5月23日

  Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court

  on Strengthening Blockchain Application

  in the Judicial Field

  The Opinions are herein made for further implementation of the Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s instructions on actively promoting the application of blockchain technology to provide more intelligent, convenient and superior public services for the people, and for the earnest fulfillment of the Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Economic and Social Development and the Long-Range Objectives through the Year 2035 of the People’s Republic of China and the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Informatization. While taking the real work of the people’s courts into consideration, the Opinions aim to leverage the role of blockchain in cementing judicial credibility, facilitating social governance, preventing and resolving risks, promoting high-quality development, etc., so as to reinforce the advance of smart courts on all fronts and the modernization of the judicial system and judicial capabilities.

  I. Overall requirements

  (1) Guiding philosophies. Concentrating on the goal of “working to ensure that the people feel fairness and justice prevails in every judicial case”, the Opinions, under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, endeavor to thoroughly implement Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law and on building China’s strength in cyberspace, and are committed to serving the overall interests, administrating justice for the people and maintaining judicial fairness. The Opinions intend to vigorously promote in-depth integration between blockchain technology and diversified dispute resolution, litigation services, trial and enforcement and judicial administration. People’s courts in China need to actively utilize the blockchain platform to facilitate social governance, optimize business environment, cement the development of the credit system, prevent and resolve major risks and underpin the establishment of a new development paradigm, sparing no efforts to elevate digital justice to a higher level.

  (2) Overall objectives. By 2025, a blockchain alliance featuring interconnectivity and sharing between the people’s courts and all social sectors will come into being and a relatively complete standard system for blockchain application in the judicial field will be in place with the capabilities for fundamental support for data verification, trusted operation, smart contract, interoperation collaboration, etc. to be dramatically improved. Moreover, diversified dispute resolution, litigation services, trial and enforcement, and judicial administration will witness the comprehensive application of blockchain technology which effectively enhances judicial credibility, efficiency and integrity. By then, the judicial blockchain interoperation alliance is to be integrated into the economic and social operation system, enabling interoperation information sharing and coordination with the political and legal, industrial and commercial, financial, environmental, social credit and other sectors, which will actively contribute to the improvement of business environment, economic and social governance, risk prevention and resolution, and industrial innovation and development, back China to become a peaceful, digital and credit-based country under the rule of law, foster a world-leading model of blockchain application in the judicial field with Chinese characteristics, providing superior judicial services and solid guarantee for China’s economic and social digital transformation and high-quality development in the new era.

  (3) Basic principles.

  Pursuing law-based coordination and emphasizing collaboration and interconnectivity. It is necessary to strengthen overall planning of blockchain infrastructure in accordance with laws and regulations and carry out top-level design of blockchain application in the judicial field in view of the needs of economic and social development as well as that of trial and enforcement. Research on interoperation collaborative application models with all walks of life should be intensified to promote data sharing and collaborative application between different parties.

  Upholding openness and sharing and prioritizing standards. It is necessary to build a blockchain alliance with interconnectivity and sharing among all social sectors, develop capabilities to support common fundamental technologies, establish a unified and open technical standard system for blockchain application in the judicial field, making standardized services available to cross-departmental node access and joint maintenance and utilization of data across different industries.

  Underlining application and valuing innovation-based development. Guided by the principles of administrating justice for the people, maintaining judicial fairness and facilitating social governance, it is necessary to give full play to the function of the blockchain in business process optimization, operation cost reduction, collaborative efficiency improvement, trusted system establishment, and other fields. Consistent efforts are required to promote the in-depth application of blockchain in the judicial field and to improve the performance of blockchain in cross-domain automatic enforcement.

  Ensuring security and reliability and highlighting orderly progress. On the premise of security and trustworthiness, it is necessary to work hard to improve the accuracy and controllability of stored data and smart contracts on the blockchain, ensure data security, and protect personal information, in a bid to foster an environment of blockchain application in the judicial field with steady progress, orderly development, security and reliability.

  II. Requirements on building the blockchain platforms of the people’s courts

  (4) Strengthening top-level design of blockchain application. In accordance with laws and norms, and the overarching concept of internal and external efficient collaboration, it is required to systematically design the scenarios of blockchain application in the judicial field in response to the needs of coordinating the court work with the improvement of social governance. In view of the needs of collaboration between internal and external networks, an overall plan for building a blockchain that is unified nationwide, enables inter-network and interoperation judicial application should be developed.

  (5) Constantly advancing capacity building for interoperation collaborative application. In order to actively serve the economic and social governance and application scenarios of judicial work, it is required to build the infrastructure of the blockchain alliance based on distributed identification, interconnectivity, and interoperation mutual trust, effectively integrate the enforcement blockchain construction achievements, give full play to the technical strengths of the alliance chain, and boost the development of the interoperation alliance of the judicial blockchain platform and that of all walks of life so as to constantly enhance synergy.

  (6) Enhancing technical capabilities of the judicial blockchain. It is required to gather superior strengths to make a breakthrough in key technologies, create an open and shared judicial blockchain platform among people’s courts nationwide, improve basic technical capabilities such as data verification, trusted operation, smart contract and interoperation collaboration, etc., and support people’s courts at all levels to engage in innovative application based on the judicial blockchain platform.

  (7) Building an Internet-based judicial blockchain verification platform. Based on the data of the national judicial blockchain platform, it is required to build a judicial blockchain verification platform on the Internet, which enables parties and other relevant subjects to verify the authenticity of mediation data, electronic evidence, litigation documents and other judicial data.

  (8) Establishing and optimizing a standard system. It is required to establish and optimize the technical standards and management specification for the application of blockchain in the judicial field, and provide technical guidance and standardized access support for the interconnectivity, sharing and collaboration with blockchain platforms and nodes in relevant fields.

  III. Making the most of the data tamper-proof technology of blockchain to further enhance judicial credibility

  (9) Ensuring the security of judicial data. Judicial data of the people’s courts, including electronic case files, electronic archives, judicial statistical reports and the status of concluding cases, are expected to be stored on the blockchain, to make sure the judicial data are tamper-proof and enhance data security.

  (10) Ensuring trustworthiness of electronic evidence. It is necessary to perfect the evidence verification function of the blockchain platform, which enables parties and judges to verify the electronic evidence stored on the blockchain online, so as to contribute to setting sound standards and rules for blockchain-based storage and improve the efficiency and quality of electronic evidence identification.

  (11) Ensuring compliance of enforcement operations. It is necessary to store data and operations, such as information on enforcement cases, information of parties and organizations, notice of enforcement, investigation and control of property, disposal of property, collection and distribution of money related to the cases, credit-based punishment, evidence collection, interactions of enforcement, reporting and conclusion of cases, archiving of cases on the blockchain, regularly carry out a security audit on operation of the whole process to enhance the normativity of enforcement operations, and consider the method of online closed-loop examination of sensitive operations such as investigation and control in enforcement, so as to make sure reliability and accuracy.

  (12) Ensuring the authority of judicial instruments. It is necessary to uniformly store litigation documents served by the people’s courts and receipts of service on the judicial blockchain platform, and allow online verification of served documents to make sure the security and reliability of the whole process of service, so as to eliminate concerns of the parties about the authenticity of served information and maintain the authority of judicial instruments being served.

  IV. Giving full play of the essential role of blockchain in optimizing business processes to constantly improve judicial efficiency

  (13) Enabling circulation and application of case-filing information. It is necessary to set operational rules on the classification and categorization and later automatic circulation of documents to be docketed so as to achieve the automatic docketing of cases after their classification and categorization upon the expiry of the prescribed period for submission of materials, consolidate the fruits of the reform on case-filing registration system and improve case-filing efficiency.

  (14) Enabling connected application between mediation and trial procedures. It is necessary to set operational rules on automatically triggering the trial procedure or the enforcement procedure upon the failure to perform mediation agreements and launch the smart contract procedure, so as to cement judicial authority of the mediation procedure and support diversified dispute resolution.

  (15) Enabling the connection between trial and enforcement procedures. It is necessary to comprehensively advance the interoperability and sharing of information and data between trial and enforcement case handling systems, and explore the possibility of making rules and linkage mechanisms on automatically triggering the enforcement procedure upon the failure to perform judicial decisions, so as to optimize the convergence from trial to enforcement, ensure the information is transformed smoothly, reduce duplicate work and solve the problems of enforcement difficulties.

  (16) Enhancing the efficiency of enforcement. It is necessary to explore the possibility of establishing a smart contract mechanism to automatically investigate, freeze and seize property in eligible enforcement cases and distribute money related to the enforcement cases, so as to simplify the approval process under the premise of ensuring procedural compliance; establishing a smart contract mechanism to automatically file a case and resume enforcement without filing a separate case for cases where the enforcement procedure was suspended after the enforcement of the whole property discovered by unified investigation clues and settlement cases of enforcement for non-fulfillment of obligations.

  (17) Enabling enforcement officers and police staff to handle cases more conveniently. It is necessary to utilize blockchain technology to promote the extension to mobile ends and formation of decentralized, de-networked, de-systematized data strings for online investigation and control, evaluation and auction, collection and distribution of money related to the cases, restriction of consumption for credit-related punished people, matters entrusted and electronic files generated with the case to enable enforcement officers and police staff to handle enforcement matters more conveniently at anytime and anywhere.

  V. Fully taping the tremendous potential of blockchain connectivity to enhance judicial collaboration

  (18) Improving collaboration in verifying lawyers’ qualifications. In response to the needs of verifying lawyers’ qualifications, it is necessary to realize interoperation collaborative application between the people’s courts and administrative organs, to enable online inquiry and verification of qualifications and credit reports of lawyers in litigation activities, with higher time efficiency.

  (19) Improving collaboration in case handling between political and legal organs. To facilitate cross-departmental collaboration in operation involved in abatement from penalty, release on parole, criminal, civil and commercial cases and certification of citizenship, it is necessary to realize interoperation collaborative application between the people’s courts and procuratorial, public security, judicial, administrative and other organs, so as to improve the efficiency of online case circulation and data mutual trust.

  (20) Improving the capability of cross-departmental collaborative enforcement. To facilitate investigation and control of property subject to enforcement and cooperative punishment for judgment debtors subject to enforcement, it is necessary to realize interoperation collaborative application between the people’s courts and organs involved in administrative law enforcement, immovable property registration, financial securities and insurance, or organs cooperatively imposing credit-based punishment, etc. and develop a model of automatically carrying out investigation and control in enforcement and imposing credit-based punishment, so as to improve the working efficiency of collaborative enforcement.

  VI. Leveraging properties of the blockchain alliance of mutual recognition and trustworthiness to facilitate economic and social governance

  (21) Protecting intellectual property. It is necessary to build an interoperation collaborative mechanism with blockchain platforms for intellectual property, such as copyrights, trademarks and patents, and enable inquiry about and verification of information related to intellectual property ownership, registration, transfer and others to facilitate the evidence identification of intellectual property cases, so as to further push forward the implementation of the national innovation-driven development strategy.

  (22) Supporting the improvement of the business environment. It is necessary to build an interoperation collaborative mechanism with blockchain platforms for market regulation, property registration, transactions and others, and enable inquiry about and verification of information related to the ownership registration and status of transactions, such as basic business profile, variation of corporate equities, correlation between businesses, ownership of immovables and movables, financial leasing, precious metal trading, to facilitate the identification of ownership and transactions of property rights, so as to intensify the development of the classified and categorized supervision system based on data and credit, and to further improve the national business environment.

  (23) Underpinning data development and utilization. It is necessary to build an interoperation collaborative mechanism with blockchain platforms, such as data ownership, online data trading, etc., and enable inquiry about and verification of information related to data ownership confirmation and data trading and other processes as well as handling of smart contracts, to propel the construction of data markets and the release of data value, so as to better facilitate the implementation of the national big data strategy.

  (24) Supporting circulation and application of financial information. It is necessary to build an interoperation collaborative mechanism with blockchain platforms of financial institutions, and enable inquiry about and verification of information related to approval, performance and default of financial loan contracts and credit cards as well as handling of smart contracts, so as to better contribute to preventing and resolving financial risks.

  (25) Supporting bankruptcy and restructuring of enterprises. It is necessary to build an interoperation collaborative mechanism with blockchain platforms of relevant government departments, and enable interoperability and sharing of business information of debtor enterprises and information related to litigation and enforcement, and enable online verification and cross-examination of information of submission of creditor claims, strengthen open and transparent verification of creditor claims while safeguarding the right to information and access of all creditors, and further ensure the voting effectiveness of online creditors’ meetings to better serve the rescue and exit of market entities.

  (26) Facilitating the construction of the credit system. It is necessary to build an interoperation collaborative mechanism with the National Credit Information Sharing Platform, the National Enterprise Credit Information Publicity System, and credit-breaking punishment organs, and enable inquiry about and online verification of information of the blacklist of judgment debtors and people banned from high-spending as well as handling of smart contracts, to make sure the judgment debtors’ information is generated reliably, transmitted securely and used compliantly, so as to further develop the function of cooperative punishment for credit-breaking individuals, contribute to improving the new credit-based supervision mechanism, and push forward the construction of the social credit system.

  VII. Guarantee measures

  (27) Cementing organizational leadership. People’s courts at all levels shall attach great importance to the development and application of blockchain in the judicial field, strengthen coordination, and specify leading departments in charge of overall progress and management of blockchain application.

  (28) Establishing a collaborative mechanism. People’s courts at all levels shall coordinate priorities of blockchain application in their respective jurisdictions, unite political and legal departments, social organs and other forces to strengthen the collaborative working mechanism, jointly promoting blockchain application in the judicial field.

  (29) Strengthening support. People’s courts at all levels shall incorporate blockchain application into the development plan of smart courts for coordinated implementation, and combine it with innovation of social governance of local governments, to seek funding support and expedite the progress.

  (30) Paying attention to demonstration projects. People’s courts at all levels shall choose relatively mature application scenarios to launch demonstration projects, with focus on needs of the economic and social development and the business needs of the people's courts, to form innovative models that can be reproduced and popularized.

  (31) Ensuring security and reliability. People’s courts at all levels shall optimize the pre-review, testing and evaluating mechanism to make sure the authenticity, accuracy and compliance of the stored data on the blockchain as well as the consistency of data on and off the chain, and make sure the legality, effectiveness, security and reliability of smart contracts.

  (32) Taking active steps towards publicity and guidance. People’s courts at all levels shall intensify publicity and promotion of best practices, and provide training on blockchain application for court officers and police staff, to improve the effects of blockchain application in the judicial field on all fronts.

  The Supreme People’s Court

  May 23, 2022

責任編輯:劉帆
超级乱婬伦丝袜老师